Intro

Gitlint is a git commit message linter written in python: it checks your commit messages for style.

Great for use as a commit-msg git hook or as part of your gating script in a CI pipeline (e.g. Jenkins).

Note

Gitlint is currently not supported on Windows.

Also, gitlint is not the only git commit message linter out there, if you are looking for an alternative written in a different language, have a look at fit-commit (Ruby), node-commit-msg (Node.js) or commitlint (Node.js).

Features

Getting Started

# Install gitlint
pip install gitlint
# On macOS (recommended to use pip for the latest version)
brew tap rockyluke/devops
brew install gitlint

# Check the last commit message
gitlint
# Alternatively, pipe a commit message to gitlint:
cat examples/commit-message-1 | gitlint
# or
git log -1 --pretty=%B | gitlint
# Or read the commit-msg from a file, like so:
gitlint --msg-filename examples/commit-message-2

# To install a gitlint as a commit-msg git hook:
gitlint install-hook

Output example:

$ cat examples/commit-message-2 | gitlint
1: T1 Title exceeds max length (134>80): "This is the title of a commit message that    is over 80 characters and contains hard tabs and trailing whitespace and the word wiping  "
1: T2 Title has trailing whitespace: "This is the title of a commit message that    is over 80 characters and contains hard tabs and trailing whitespace and the word wiping  "
1: T4 Title contains hard tab characters (\t): "This is the title of a commit message that  is over 80 characters and contains hard tabs and trailing whitespace and the word wiping  "
2: B4 Second line is not empty: "This line should not contain text"
3: B1 Line exceeds max length (125>80): "Lines typically need to have   a max length, meaning that they can't exceed a preset number of characters, usually 80 or 120. "
3: B2 Line has trailing whitespace: "Lines typically need to have   a max length, meaning that they can't exceed a preset number of characters, usually 80 or 120. "
3: B3 Line contains hard tab characters (\t): "Lines typically need to have     a max length, meaning that they can't exceed a preset number of characters, usually 80 or 120. "

Note

The returned exit code equals the number of errors found. Some exit codes are special.

For a list of available rules and their configuration options, have a look at the Rules page.

The Configuration page explains how you can modify gitlint's runtime behavior via command-line flags, a .gitlint configuration file or on a per commit basis.

As a simple example, you can modify gitlint's verbosity using the -v flag, like so:

$ cat examples/commit-message-2 | gitlint -v
1: T1
1: T2
[removed output]
$ cat examples/commit-message-2 | gitlint -vv
1: T1 Title exceeds max length (134>80)
1: T2 Title has trailing whitespace
1: T4 Title contains hard tab characters (\t)
[removed output]
$ cat examples/commit-message-2 | gitlint -vvv
1: T1 Title exceeds max length (134>80): "This is the title of a commit message that    is over 80 characters and contains hard tabs and trailing whitespace and the word wiping  "
1: T2 Title has trailing whitespace: "This is the title of a commit message that    is over 80 characters and contains hard tabs and trailing whitespace and the word wiping  "
[removed output]

The default verbosity is -vvv.

Other commands and variations:

$ gitlint --help
Usage: gitlint [OPTIONS] COMMAND [ARGS]...

  Git lint tool, checks your git commit messages for styling issues

Options:
  --target DIRECTORY       Path of the target git repository. [default:
                           current working directory]
  -C, --config PATH        Config file location [default: .gitlint]
  -c TEXT                  Config flags in format <rule>.<option>=<value>
                           (e.g.: -c T1.line-length=80). Flag can be used
                           multiple times to set multiple config values.
  --commits TEXT           The range of commits to lint. [default: HEAD]
  -e, --extra-path PATH    Path to a directory or python module with extra
                           user-defined rules
  --ignore TEXT            Ignore rules (comma-separated by id or name).
  --msg-filename FILENAME  Path to a file containing a commit-msg
  -v, --verbose            Verbosity, more v's for more verbose output (e.g.:
                           -v, -vv, -vvv). [default: -vvv]
  -s, --silent             Silent mode (no output). Takes precedence over -v,
                           -vv, -vvv.
  -d, --debug              Enable debugging output.
  --version                Show the version and exit.
  --help                   Show this message and exit.

Commands:
  generate-config  Generates a sample gitlint config file.
  install-hook     Install gitlint as a git commit-msg hook.
  lint             Lints a git repository [default command]
  uninstall-hook   Uninstall gitlint commit-msg hook.

  When no COMMAND is specified, gitlint defaults to 'gitlint lint'.

Using gitlint as a commit-msg hook

Introduced in gitlint v0.4.0

You can also install gitlint as a git commit-msg hook so that gitlint checks your commit messages automatically after each commit.

gitlint install-hook
# To remove the hook
gitlint uninstall-hook

Important

Gitlint cannot work together with an existing hook. If you already have a .git/hooks/commit-msg file in your local repository, gitlint will refuse to install the commit-msg hook. Gitlint will also only uninstall unmodified commit-msg hooks that were installed by gitlint.

Using gitlint through pre-commit

gitlint can be configured as a plugin for the pre-commit git hooks framework. Simply add the configuration to your .pre-commit-config.yaml:

-   repo: https://github.com/jorisroovers/gitlint
    rev:  # Fill in a tag / sha here
    hooks:
    -   id: gitlint

Using gitlint in a CI environment

By default, when just running gitlint without additional parameters, gitlint lint the last commit in the current git repository.

This makes it easy to add gitlint to a check script that is run in a CI environment (Jenkins, TravisCI, pre-commit, CircleCI, etc). In fact, this is exactly what we do ourselves: on every commit, we run gitlint as part of our travisCI tests. This will cause the build to fail when we submit a bad commit message.

Note

Versions prior to gitlint 0.9.0 required a TTY to be attached to STDIN for this to work, this is no longer required now.

Alternatively, gitlint will also lint any commit message that you feed it via stdin like so:

# lint the last commit message
git log -1 --pretty=%B | gitlint
# lint a specific commit: 62c0519
git log -1 --pretty=%B 62c0519 | gitlint

Note that gitlint requires that you specify --pretty=%B (=only print the log message, not the metadata), future versions of gitlint might fix this and not require the --pretty argument.

Linting a range of commits

Introduced in gitlint v0.9.0 (experimental in v0.8.0)

Gitlint allows users to commit a number of commits at once like so:

# Lint a specific commit range:
gitlint --commits 019cf40...d6bc75a
# You can also use git's special references:
gitlint --commits origin..HEAD
# Or specify a single specific commit in refspec format, like so:
gitlint --commits 019cf40^...019cf40

The --commits flag takes a single refspec argument or commit range. Basically, any range that is understood by git rev-list as a single argument will work.

Prior to v0.8.1 gitlint didn't support this feature. However, older versions of gitlint can still lint a range or set of commits at once by creating a simple bash script that pipes the commit messages one by one into gitlint. This approach can still be used with newer versions of gitlint in case --commits doesn't provide the flexibility you are looking for.

#!/bin/bash

for commit in $(git rev-list master); do
    commit_msg=$(git log -1 --pretty=%B $commit)
    echo "$commit"
    echo "$commit_msg" | gitlint
    echo "--------"
done

Note

One downside to this approach is that you invoke gitlint once per commit vs. once per set of commits. This means you'll incur the gitlint startup time once per commit, making this approach rather slow if you want to lint a large set of commits. Always use --commits if you can to avoid this performance penalty.

Merge, fixup and squash commits

Introduced in gitlint v0.7.0 (merge commits) and gilint v0.9.0 (fixup, squash)

Gitlint ignores merge, fixup and squash commits by default.

For merge commits, the rationale for ignoring them is that in many cases merge commits are not created by users themselves but by tools such as github, gerrit and others. These tools often generate merge commit messages that violate gitlint's set of rules (a common example is "Merge:" being auto-prepended which can trigger a title-max-length violation) and it's not always convenient or desired to change those.

For squash and fixup commits, the rationale is that these are temporary commits that will be squashed into a different commit, and hence the commit messages for these commits are very short-lived and not intended to make it into the final commit history. In addition, by prepending "fixup!" or "squash!" to your commit message, certain gitlint rules might be violated (e.g. title-max-length) which is often undesirable.

In case you do want to lint these commit messages, you can disable this behavior by setting the general ignore-merge-commits, ignore-fixup-commits or ignore-squash-commits option to false using one of the various ways to configure gitlint.

Ignoring commits

Introduced in gitlint v0.10.0

Gitlint allows you to ignore specific rules for specific commits.

One way to do this, is to by adding a gitline-ignore line to your commit message.

If you have a case where you want to ignore a certain type of commits all-together, you can use gitlint's ignore rules to do so. Here's an example gitlint file that configures gitlint to ignore rules title-max-length and body-min-length for all commits with a title starting with "Release".

[ignore-by-title]
# Match commit titles starting with Release
regex=^Release(.*)
ignore=title-max-length,body-min-length
# ignore all rules by setting ignore to 'all'
# ignore=all

[ignore-by-title]
# Match commits message bodies that have a line that contains 'release'
regex=(.*)release(.*)
ignore=all

Note

Right now it's not possible to write user-defined ignore rules to handle more complex user-cases. This is however something that we'd like to implement in a future version. If this is something you're interested in please let us know by opening an issue.

Exit codes

Gitlint uses the exit code as a simple way to indicate the number of violations found. Some exit codes are used to indicate special errors as indicated in the table below.

Because of these special error codes and the fact that bash only supports exit codes between 0 and 255, the maximum number of violations counted by the exit code is 252. Note that gitlint does not have a limit on the number of violations it can detect, it will just always return with exit code 252 when the number of violations is greater than or equal to 252.

Exit Code Description
253 Wrong invocation of the gitlint command.
254 Something went wrong when invoking git.
255 Invalid gitlint configuration